Most people agree that it is the budget, right? Wrong.
The budget is a key component of the film production process but there are many other factors which play more important roles in the success or failure of a film.
These factors are collectively referred to as below-the-line costs.
Below-the-line costs include all of the expenses that do not directly involve actors, director and writers, but are critical to the film’s success.
Below-the-line costs include pre-production, production, and post-production and marketing.
What Is below the line
What Is below the line In Film?
The term below-the-line refers to the various production costs that are not included in the budget for a film.
These are the expenses that are not directly linked to production but which, nonetheless, have a significant impact on the final cost and profitability of the project.
Although each film is different, there are certain categories of expenses which are considered to be below-the-line costs in most situations.
Just as above-the-line costs (also known as “above the line”) include all those expenses directly related to production, such as screenplay development, cast and crew salaries, special effects, and set construction, below-the-line costs include all those which are necessary to produce a film but not considered part of its production budget.
Although many of these costs will be covered by an outside financing entity or studio distribution deal, some portion of these costs must be absorbed by the producing company itself. When this is the case, they are referred to as negative costs.
As with above-the-line costs, there is no one definition for what constitutes a below-the-line expense.
Generally speaking, it can be said that any expense which does not relate directly to producing a film falls into this category.
What Does Below-The-Line In Film Production?
Preproduction costs involve activities such as scriptwriting, location scouting, props, and set design and preparation.
Production involves the activities during actual filming including cast and crew salaries, location fees and permits, travel expenses for actors and crew, equipment rental fees, and supplies for sets.
Postproduction includes editing and special effects work. Marketing includes advertising such as television commercials and print ads as well as press kits and movie trailers.
An independent film’s marketing budget can be just as large as its production budget because marketing is essential to getting a film noticed.
Tallying up your BTL costs can be tricky, but it’s important you get them right. You’ll need to know BTL costs if you want to produce your film on schedule and on budget. Here are some key points about below-the-line costs:
You need to cover 90% of your total cost with 10% of your budget. How much does it cost to make a movie? The answer depends on who you ask and how they define “cost.”
Some people look at just above-the-line costs, which are made up of the actors’ salaries and production staff wages — and ignore below-the-line expenses like equipment rental, location fees and special effects. If you’re hoping to produce your film for under $1 million, following this method will give you an accurate estimate on how much you can spend. If you want to go over $1 million without going.
What Is Above And Below-The-Line In Film Production?
What is above-the-line and what is below-the-line? What is above the line in film production? The above line names form a film’s creative core. In other words, these are the people who are primarily responsible for writing, producing, and/or directing the film.
This group of people will be credited on screen at the very beginning of the movie and may or may not be listed in more detail in the closing credits. Although they are considered “above the line,” they don’t necessarily receive top billing in terms of salary.
What is below the line in film production?
The term “below-the-line” refers to any costs incurred during pre production, production and post-production that aren’t directly associated with producing the movie’s final product. These can include items such as transportation, insurance, casting and wardrobe.
Whether you are a film student or an aspiring movie producer, it is important to understand the meaning of above-the-line and below-the-line in film production. Above-the-line costs are associated with the creative end of movie making. They include the costs of actors, directors, producers, writers and studio overhead.
These costs are part of the budget before pre production starts. Below-the-line costs occur once shooting begins. This includes such things as set construction and location fees. The distinction between above-the-line and below-the-line costs has become less clear in recent years as studios have begun to bring actors and writers on board before they know if a project will actually be made.
Studios call these participants “preferred talent,” which means they are more likely to be hired for future projects, but they don’t have any guarantee of employment on a particular project. The concept of preferred talent is most often used by smaller studios that cannot afford to put big stars or writers under contract for multiple pictures at one time.
This practice has sometimes been abused by studios who will place desirable talent on short term contracts in order to steer them away from competitors or hold their services until a project is greenlit.
What Is The Number Below-The-Line In Film Production?
What Is The Number Below-The-Line In Film Production? A film’s below the line costs are those that do not appear on the budget page of a typical Hollywood script. They include production costs such as casting, costumes, sets, and props.
These costs can be either fixed (a certain number of dollars per day) or variable (based on what they end up spending). These costs are paid to all the various department heads within a film production to help them pay their employees and to buy the necessary equipment for their departments.
The term “below the line” comes from the fact that these costs are below the line marked “line producer” or “unit production manager” in a movie’s budget. In today’s film industry, many companies hire outside individuals to work on films who may be called upon for any part of a production.
For example, a makeup artist might be hired for his or her expertise with respect to creating prosthetics, but later be asked by the director to create special effects (or SFX) for a scene, such as making someone look like they have been mauled by an animal.
Although this makeup artist would not normally be considered part of an effects team — since he or she is working in a field unrelated to effects What Is The Number Below-The-Line In Film Production?
Every production has a budget, and every budget must be allocated to specific line items. Budget line items are referred to as “below the line.” Every production also has a number of fixed costs, or costs that do not vary based on the scope of the production.
Below-the-line refers to the relatively small portion of a film’s budget allocated for creative elements (preproduction and production). Below-the-line costs include: Production Crew: This is the full cost of all crew members who work below the line during pre production, production, and postproduction.
This includes cast and crew salaries, as well as any fees paid to unions or guilds. If you have a large crew with many different types of specialized personnel, you may need to hire outside consultants to assist your production team with specialized duties.
For example, if you are shooting in foreign countries where you don’t speak the language fluently, you may hire someone who can translate on set. Or if your shoot requires equipment that isn’t readily available in that country, you may need to find someone who can arrange for transportation or equipment rentals.
Above The Line Vs Below The Line In Film Production
Above the line vs below the line is a term used in the motion picture industry to describe participants in filmmaking. The line separates those who are essential to a film’s production (above the line) from those who are not (below the line). I
t is most commonly used in Hollywood, where films tend to have multi-million dollar budgets. Titles, such as director, screenwriter and actor are usually above the line due to their creative input into a film’s production.
Below-the-line workers, such as caterers, technicians and cleaners are those that assist the above-the-line workers, but do not have any impact on the actual production of a film. Production companies use this distinction for budgeting purposes because it allows them to better understand how much money should be allotted to each part of the film’s production.
There is also an implication that stars and other “above-the-line” personnel are more likely to receive higher salaries, because their work has a larger effect on a film’s success, while below-the-line workers typically receive lower wages because their contributions are not directly related to how well a film does financially.
What is above the line? In film production, the term is used to describe the “above the line” expenses of a movie. These are defined as any costs associated with the actual production of the movie, including things like budget costs for cast, crew, equipment and set-up times.
You may also hear these referred to as “above-the-line” costs. Below The Line refers to all other costs that are not directly involved with producing and promoting a film, such as distribution expenses or advertising costs.
The goal of this division between “above the line” and “below the line” is to categorize all expenses that go into making a film, so that each side can be responsible for their own costs and therefore free to negotiate for better rates on their own services.
The terminology has become standard in Hollywood and is a part of every contract negotiation between studios and actors/directors/production companies/distributors—or anyone else who’s involved in creating a film.
Above the line and below the line are terms used in both film production and television production. They refer to two groups of people, one that works for pay and one that does not.
TALKING PICTURES AND THE LINE
The phrase originated in Hollywood studios in the 1920s, when it was noticed that the executives and front office employees who made the decisions about which movies were made were on the top floor or “above the line” of the building, while the creative talent was on the floor below.
The executives included producers, directors, and studio heads. The creative talent included writers (both screenwriters and playwrights), directors, actors, cinematographers, composers, costume designers, makeup artists, and sound technicians.
The “line” was also a way of separating those who made money from those who did not. Those above it could live off their salaries plus any profits; those below had to rely on salaries alone.
That was why they were called “below-the-line” workers — they had to be paid even if a movie lost money. Hollywood’s Golden Age began in 1929 with The Jazz Singer . It featured synchronized dialogue sequences as well as music. Although The Jazz Singer was only a modest success at first,
Above the line and below the line are terms used in both film production and television production. They refer to two groups of people, one that works for pay and one that does not.
TALKING PICTURES AND THE LINE
The phrase originated in Hollywood studios in the 1920s, when it was noticed that the executives and front office employees who made the decisions about which movies were made were on the top floor or “above the line” of the building, while the creative talent was on the floor below. The executives included producers, directors, and studio heads.
The creative talent included writers (both screenwriters and playwrights), directors, actors, cinematographers, composers, costume designers, makeup artists, and sound technicians. The “line” was also a way of separating those who made money from those who did not. Those above it could live off their salaries plus any profits; those below had to rely on salaries alone.
That was why they were called “below-the-line” workers — they had to be paid even if a movie lost money. Hollywood’s Golden Age began in 1929 with The Jazz Singer . It featured synchronized dialogue sequences as well as music. Although The Jazz Singer was only a modest success at first
What Puts Something “Below The Line” In Film Production?
But, what I think you’re getting at is what puts something “below the line,” like, for example, a script supervisor. TECHNICALLY, the script supervisor is part of the crew that does not include above-the-line talent (ie actors and directors and such).
The term “above the line” refers to all of the creative types and creative personnel who are directly responsible for putting together and creating a film (ie. writers, directors, producers, editors, etc.).
The term “below the line” refers to those folks who are working on behalf of the above-the-line talent to make the film possible (ie. camera people, gaffers, stagehands, grips and yes…even script supervisors). But it’s important to note that there’s no hard and fast rules about who is “above” or “below” anyone else.
For example, if you’re working on a small independent film with a low budget and your cinematographer is also directing the film…he’s both above AND below you in terms of his role in making the film! So while we can break things down into easily identifiable categories…it’s important to remember that those lines aren’t always so clear cut! What does it take to put something “below the line” in film production? Is it a certain monetary amount? No, it’s not.
It’s more of a creative and technical process than anything else. Truly independent films are below the line. A project that is financed by the producer or director himself or herself or with the help of a few investors is below the line.
The money to make the film was raised by these people themselves, not through outside investors. The term “above-the-line” refers to all those expenses related directly to making the picture such as talent salaries and crew costs. Below-the-line items are all other expenses including everything from catering to rentals and miscellaneous expenses.
Even insurance falls under this category. Below-the-line costs are paid with non-film related money and thus do not show up on a film’s budget statement when financing is sought from outside sources such as banks or private investors.
Even though there are no set rules for what can be considered below-the-line, there are some basic guidelines that have been established over time by filmmakers who have experienced bottlenecks in financing their projects.
Below The Line Example In Film Production
In film production, below the line (BTL) refers to all the services related to film production that are not part of the actual filmmaking, sometimes called above the line (ATL) work. The distinction between above and below is subjective, and different film producers define lines differently.
Tasks under BTL are usually farmed out to service companies or individuals who specialize in such tasks, so that a film’s creative team can concentrate on their specific area of expertise (e.g., screenwriting or cinematography).
BTL covers many aspects of physical production, including:
Set construction and design
Props and wardrobe
Makeup and hair styling
Special effects make-up
Location scouting and management
Vehicle procurement or management (depending on the scale of the production) Catering services (though many productions prefer to contract this service out to an independent caterer) Transportation services for cast, crew, equipment and/or location materials
Film editing (often contracted out to an independent post-production house) The term “below the line” refers to any expenses associated with making a movie, TV show, or other production that don’t fall into the category of “above the line” expenditures.
Titles below-the-line are often confused with job titles such as grips, gaffers, and best boys. The difference is that, for the purposes of film or TV production accounting, below-the-line costs are paid for by the production company and above-the-line costs are paid for by the distributor(s).
Below-the-line costs include items like:
The writer’s and director’s salaries
The cost of renting equipment
Costs associated with cast and crew (food, lodging, transportation)
Post-production costs: editing, color correction, sound mixing
Promotional materials like posters and trailers (but not printed copies of scripts)
In contrast, above-the-line costs generally refer to anything paid for by the distributor(s), such as cast salaries (if they’re not also part of the production crew), studio overhead such as building maintenance or security guards, transportation between locations, etc.
Exceptional And Extraordinary Items In Film Production
When filming a movie, TV show or commercial production, there are some props and items that will be used more frequently than others. These items are considered “exceptional and extraordinary” property, and there are specific rules regarding their usage.
These rules were set up to prevent studios from exploiting the same prop too often, or to prevent someone from getting an item that is particularly associated with a certain actor. This article will give you information about what Exceptional and Extraordinary Items are in film production and how they can be obtained.
Just because an item is considered exceptional doesn’t mean the studio can’t use it at all. It just means that a studio cannot rely on the same prop over and over again, or that it should not be sold to the public.
For example, if you saw James Bond using a cool gadget in his latest movie, chances are good that it is worth a lot of money if it was ever auctioned off. The same goes for any props used by famous actors like Johnny Depp, Harrison Ford or Nicolas Cage.
People in the film industry are constantly looking for any opportunity to have a better film production. They want things to be more exciting, more dramatic and more realistic than they were before. It is not always possible to achieve that goal, but some people succeed and make something very exceptional and extraordinary.
In order to achieve such an effect, movie producers use many different types of equipment and devices. Some of them can be easily found around the home while others are quite specialised and rare. Here are some examples of these exclusive items:
Camera lenses – A lens is one of the most important parts of a camera which allows the light to get to the film so that it can create an image. The primary function of a lens is to focus light entering through the aperture onto the film or image sensor, which records the light pattern as a latent image.
In some systems the primary lens can be removed from the camera body and replaced with another one having a different focal length or range. The Panavision Genesis is a digital camera system which was used for filming “Avatar” in 2009. This is an example of a very specialised item because it was purpose-built for this particular shoot. It took three years to develop this camera and it cost nearly $3 million.
Creative Accounting In Film Production
Creative accounting is an indispensable tool in the film production business. What Is Creative Accounting? Creative accounting, also known as creative financing or creative bookkeeping, is the practice of circumventing established rules and regulations for financing a motion picture or television production.
The goal of creative accounting is to provide producers with the cash flow necessary to produce their film. The practice of creative accounting dates back to the early days of Hollywood and has been used by every major studio at one time or another.
During the Golden Age of Hollywood (1927-1953), studios routinely engaged in creative accounting practices in order to circumvent F.B.I., antitrust, and tax laws governing their industry.
It was not until 1954 that the Supreme Court ruled that movies were subject to federal antitrust laws, and thus began the demise of some studios’ creative bookkeeping practices. How Creative Accounting Works.
Creative accounting works by providing financial incentives for both producers and investors. From a producer’s point of view, creative accounting allows them to obtain necessary funding without having to relinquish control over their project.
Since they are not handing over all rights (such as distribution rights) to a single investor, they can solicit funds from several investors who agree to participate on different levels by investing .
Creative accounting is the practice of making sure that you are still in the black when it comes to your film production budget even though the film has gone over budget. This can be done by either under-reporting certain costs or reporting others as expenses.
For example, if you need to rent a crane for one day, it might be better to report it as an expense instead of reporting it as a rental and then buying it afterwards. If you reported it as an expense then you would have spent more money than you actually did, but if you bought it then you have an asset (the crane) which will help your next production budget.
Another way that creative accounting takes place is through delayed payments. By not paying certain bills right away, you can delay them into the next fiscal period which allows you to make your budget look better. This is something that happens a lot with the crew who aren’t paid until the end of the production.
You can also get around this by paying them an extra amount at the end of the project, so that they are paid on time but that also helps in creative accounting.